What is CFRP?
CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is an advanced light weight composite material made up of carbon fiber and thermosetting resins.
Machining Carbon Fiber for Post Processing
Machining carbon fiber – post processing is the final phase and once complete, the CFRP part is ready to be put into assembly. In post processing, carbon fiber trimming removes excess material if needed and cutting carbon fiber is used to machine part features into CFRP. Using a robotic waterjet or robotic router- unrivaled accuracy and speed using robotics for CFRP post process trimming, and laser software and router software technology can make all the difference.
Robotic carbon fiber trimming systems are easy to use, easy to maintain and easy to recover. Learning Path Control (LPC), and Learning Vibration Control (LVC) combined with Adaptive Process Control (APC) technologies supercharge the speed of the robotic trimming up to 60% beyond what is possible out of the box. Accufind and iRCalibration are technologies that use IR and CCD vision technology to keep pinpoint path accuracy while maintaining high speed cutting of the CFRP.
Waterjet, dry router and wet router technologies can all be suitable for carbon fiber trimming or cutting carbon fiber depending on the properties of the part and the production requirements. A variety of studies and tests are available to find the most optimal carbon fiber cutting solution for the specific CFRP part.
The Fiber in CFRP
CFRP starts as an acrylonitrile plastic powder which gets mixed with another plastic, like methyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate. Then, it is combined with a catalyst in a conventional suspension or solution polymerization reaction to form a polyacrylonitrile plastic.
The plastic is then spun into fibers using one of several different methods. In some methods, the plastic is mixed with certain chemicals and pumped through tiny jets into a chemical bath or quench chamber where the plastic coagulates and solidifies into fibers. This is similar to the process used to form polyacrylic textile fibers. In other methods, the plastic mixture is heated and pumped through tiny jets into a chamber where the solvents evaporate leaving a solid fiber. The spinning step is important because the internal atomic structure of the fiber is formed during this process.
Then the fibers are washed and stretched to the desired fiber diameter. The stretching helps align the molecules within the fiber and provide the basis for the formation of the tightly bonded carbon crystals after carbonization. Before the fibers can be carbonized they must be chemically altered to change their linear atomic bonding to more stable ladder bonding. To do this, the fibers need to be heated in air to around 380-600 F for an hour or so. This makes the fibers pick up oxygen molecules and rearrange the atomic bonding structure. Once this process is complete the fibers will be stabilized.
Once the fibers are stable, the carbonization process begins. The fibers are heated to 1800F to 5300F for a few minutes in a furnace filled with a gas mixture and no oxygen. A lack of oxygen prevents the fibers from catching fire at the high temperatures required for this step. The oxygen is kept out by an air seal where the fibers enter and exit the furnace and keeping the gas pressure inside the furnace higher than the outside air pressure. While the fibers are heated they start to lose their non-carbon atoms in the forms of gasses like water vapor, ammonia, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.
As the non-carbon atoms are removed, the remaining carbon atoms start to form tightly bonded carbon crystals that align parallel to the long side of the fiber. After this carbonization process is finished, the fibers will possess a surface that does not bond well. In order to give the fibers better bonding properties their surface needs to be oxidized, giving the fibers a rough texture and increasing their mechanical bonding ability.
Next is the sizing process. For this the fibers are coated with a material such as epoxy or urethane. This protects the fibers from damage in the winding and weaving phase. Once the fibers are coated they’re spun into cylinders called bobbins. The bobbins are then put in a machine that twists the fibers into yarns. Those yarns can then be used to weave a carbon fiber filament fabric.
In the next step a lightweight, strong durable skin is created using a process called overlay. In this process carbon fiber fabric is laid over a mold and combined with resin to create its final shape. There are two methods that can be used to for the overlay process. The first is called “wet carbon fiber layup”. For this process a dry carbon fiber sheet is laid over the mold and wet resin is applied to it. The resin gives the carbon fiber stiffness and acts as a bonding agent. The second process is called “pre-preg carbon fiber lay up”. This process uses fiber that is impregnated with resign. Pre-preg lay up provides much more uniform resin thickness than the wet lay up method due to superior resin penetration in the carbon fiber. There’s also Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)- which takes place in the next step but combines the molding step and preform carbon fiber resin transfer step into one process; more on RTM below.
Now that the CFRP prepared for forming, it’s time to mold it into a permanent shape. There are variety of techniques that can be used for the molding process. The most popular is compression molding. Compression molding involves two metal dies mounted in a hydraulic molding press. The CFRP material is taken out of the lay up and placed into the molding press. The dies are then heated and closed on the CFRP and up to 2000psi of pressure is applied. Cycle time can vary depending on part size and thickness.
Recent breakthroughs such as BMW’s “wet compression molding” process have dramatically decreased compression mold cycle time. Resin transfer molding or “RTM” is another commonly used molding technique. Like compression molding, it features dies mounted in a press that close on the preform CFRP. Unlike compression molding, resin and catalyst are pumped into the closed mold during the molding process through injection ports in the die. Both the mold and resin may be heated during RTM depending on the specific application. RTM can be preferable to other molding methods because it reduces the steps to create CFRP by combining some of the tradition preform phase steps into the molding phase.
For professional companies using raw water for their plant, some form of raw water treatment program is generally necessary to ensure a competent plant production approach and quality produced products. The very best raw water treatment program shall help avoid expensive plant downtime, costly maintenance fees, rather than having the ability to sell its products in the market, among other problematic situations.
But how do you pick the best water treatment system for your plant?
The answer to this relevant question can sometimes be a little complex and depends upon a variety of factors. We’ve simplified and divided what this may mean for your company below:
Quality: What is the quality of your raw water origin and do you know the status of the treated water?
Raw water screening and treatability study outcome: Exactly what are the variants of the feed water chemistry as time passes and how does indeed this affect the practice? Will the suggested treatment plans help you fix the problems you are having and meet with local discharge restrictions to your secondary wastes produced?
Plant lifespan: How long will you need to run the operational system? Working with your engineering company to investigate these types of key points can help steer you in the right direction when choosing the very best system for your plant.
The quality of the raw water in relation to the product quality requirements after treatment: One of many greatest factors which will regulate how to select your raw water system is the equipment that will get into the actual make-up of the system, which is often dependent on the quality of your raw water supplier in relation to the quality of water you need after treatment.
What is the quality of your water source? The first thing to understand when choosing the best water treatment system for your plant is normally what your water quality will be.
Sometimes it’s safer to treat your own water from floor or area sources or even to purchase it from a second source, for instance a municipality, but either way, it’s important to measure the quality you happen to be getting. In case the municipal water resource will probably give you low quality water and you must treat it further to make it beneficial within your facility, make certain you’re weighing these options. The contaminants present in the source water in relation to what your water quality needs are will affect the technology within the makeup of your system.
What is the quality of water you need? The second thing to comprehend when choosing the very best water treatment system for your plant may be the quality of water you will need for your company. Does it need to be:
– Pure for drinking?
– Ultrapure for microelectronics development?
– Not pure for domestic use such as for example flushing a product or toilet use?
Also remember that the water quality may be based on your industry. For example, many manufacturing facilities in industries such as power, chemical, petrochemical, and refineries, require huge volumes of water for boilers. Due to this, care must be used selecting the water treatment systems which will properly make the water intended for polishing treatment such as for example removing colloidal pollution from the water.
Numerical controlled (NC) machines have been in use since their invention in the 1940s and 1950s by John T. Parsons. The first computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine was born when John Runyon used computer controls to produce punch tapes, sharply reducing the time required from 8 hours to a mere 15 minutes. In 1957, the United States Air Force and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) collaborated on a project to produce the first NC machine controlled entirely by computer.
Fast forward more than 60 years later and the concept of CNC machining has very few differences compared to its predecessor. Though CNC machining and manufacturing still produces three-dimensional directions of output — X axis, depth and Y axis — the scope of the process reaches far beyond what anyone could ever imagine. In fact, 2018 is sure to bring new strides in this versatile technique including the following trends:
1. Complex Cuts Made Even Easier
Refinements in CNC machining will continue to make complex cuts — such as incline surface holes, contours and more — even more accurate and smooth. The project’s parameters are able to be defined in a number of different planes to generate the results that a customer expects within the timeframe needed.
2. Touchscreen Technology
Today, touchscreen technology is expected in smartphones and is increasingly becoming the norm for laptops and desktop computers too. These aren’t the only products taking advantage of this technology though. Touchscreens are integrated with CNC machines to deliver precise programming that is nimble, quick and intuitive. Built-in features are constantly updated and designed to shave precious time from programming parameters. These allow operators to deftly navigate through a range of content such as complex tables, long lists and expansive programs to find the elements that are required to complete projects.
3. Embrace New Materials, Tools and Processes
A dizzying array of new and innovative materials are developed every year, providing companies with new opportunities to deliver products that meet their target audiences’ needs. CNC machining provides processes and tools that meet the challenges of bringing these new materials to market. With the right features at the ready, CNC manufacturing tackles innovative projects with precision and speed.
4. The Trickle-Down Effect
Some industries, such as the aerospace and automobile sectors, require compliance with rigid tolerances, exceptional surface quality and the ability to endure dynamic loads. These same techniques can also be applied to the production of smaller scale items as well. The result is a workmanship and quality that is unsurpassed.
- Changing Compliance Regulations & Traceability
- Skills Gap
- Environment Concerns
The industrial and manufacturing sector keep evolving and that evolution doesn’t just happen. It’s almost always a direct result of overcoming the challenges that threaten the very existence of the sector. So, are there any challenges that the sector is dealing with currently?
Well, here are 5 challenges the manufacturing sector is currently trying to overcome.
Changing Compliance Regulations & Traceability
Changing regulations have always haunted manufacturers. But, they’re there for a good reason. Without compliance standards, manufacturers could very well end up cutting corners, which ultimately ends up affecting the end consumer.
So, for the sake of things such as quality control or proper waste management, compliance standards need to exist. However, complying with new standards isn’t an easy task for manufacturers. More often than not, they’re a burden and thanks to globalization, manufacturers are also forced to deal with regulations that are unique to each territory.
Manufacturers are also tasked with tracking compliance as well. This means that have to go through the entire supply chain to check for compliance, right from vendors to the end-product that’s sent to the customer.
As technology evolves, the rate of innovation increases. But, this also means companies have to rush and that can lead to all kinds of temptations. The urge to skip a step or avoid certain tests can be hard to resist when the goal is to market the product as soon as possible.
But, the last thing a manufacturer needs is to put the business at risk with a low-quality product. So, innovation management becomes a must in these situations. Preferences change by the day and any delay in delivering appropriate solutions can mean the end of everything.
So, manufacturers have to establish a system that allows for the consistent delivery of new ideas and innovation. Only this can sustain manufacturing success.
As one generation exits the workforce, it makes way for a new generation of workers. This transition is, in itself, quite a challenge. But, things are very different today.
Manufacturers face the challenge of filling up those positions with equally skilled members from the current generation. However, the new generation of employees is simply not skilled enough, making the challenge even harder to overcome. As a result, manufacturers have to develop strategies such as working with the education sector to offer the skills training necessary to fill these positions.
Some manufacturers are also retaining skill by extending the retirement age.
As healthcare costs go up, it becomes very difficult for manufacturers to manage their budgets. For instance, in the US, it’s manufacturers who foot healthcare bills for their employees. But, with costs going up, it is simply not feasible and there are no viable alternatives.
Regulations with regard to sustainable and environmentally safe processes and practices put more strain on the manufacturing process. Whether it’s waste disposal or the regulation of materials, more resources are needed to follow best practices.
As you can see, it’s not exactly easy for the industrial and manufacturing sector. However, manufacturers have to figure out a way to leverage technology and innovative ideas to keep up with the changes that pose a threat to them.
A printed circuit board (PCB) is a standard component in many different electronic gadgets, such as computers, radars, beepers, etc. They are made from a variety of materials with laminate, composite and fiberglass the most common. Also, the type of circuit board can vary with the intended use. Let’s take a look at five of the different types:
Single sided – this is the most typical circuit board and is built with a single layer or base material. The single layer is coated with a conductive material like copper. They may also have a silk screen coat or a protective solder mask on top of the copper layer. A great advantage of this type of PCB is the low production cost and they are often used in mass-produced items.
Double sided – this is much like the single sided, but has the conductive material on both sides. There are many holes in the board to make it easy to attach metal parts from the top to bottom side. This type of circuit board increases operational flexibility and is a practical option to build the more dense circuit designs. This board is also relatively low-cost. However, it still isn’t a practical option for the most complex circuits and is unable to work with technology that reduces electromagnetic interference. They are typically used in amplifiers, power monitoring systems, and testing equipment.
Multi-layer – the multi-layer circuit board is built with extra layers of conductive materials. The high number of layers which can reach 30 or more means it is possible to create a circuit design with very high flexibility. The individual layers are separated by special insulating materials and substrate board. A great benefit of this type of board is the compact size, which helps to save space and weight in a relatively small product. Also, they are mostly used when it is necessary to use a high-speed circuit.
Flexible – this is a very versatile circuit board. It is not only designed with a flexible layer, but also available in the single, double, or multi-layer boards. They are a great option when it is necessary to save space and weight when building a particular device. Also, they are appreciated for high ductility and low mass. However, the flexible nature of the board can make them more difficult to use.
Rigid – the rigid circuit board is built with a solid, non-flexible material for its layers. They are typically compact in size and able to handle the complex circuit designs. Plus, the signal paths are easy to organize and the ability to maintain and repair is quite straightforward.
One of the most elementary tests that can be performed on a product is the tensile test to check the breaking resistance of a product. A test specimen is kept under tension to practice opposing forces acting upon opposite faces both located on the same axis that attempt to pull the specimen apart. These tests are simple to set and complete and reveal many characteristics of the products that are tested. These tests are measured to be fundamentally the reverse of a compression test.
Purpose of this test
Usually, this test is designed to run until the specimen breaks or fails under the specific load. The values that are calculated from this type of test can vary but are not limited to tensile strength, elongation, ultimate strength, modulus of electricity, yield strength, and strain hardening. The measurements taken during the test reveal the characteristics of a material while it is under a tensile load.
Tensile Testing for Plastics
Composites and Plastic are polymers with substances added to improve the performance or reduce costs. Plastic may be pressed or cast or extruded into sheet, film, or fibre reinforced plate, glass, tubes, fibre, bottles and boxes. Thermohardening or thermosetting plastics can be brittle or hard and temperature resistant. Thermosets include polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethane, phenolic resins, non-meltable, non-deformable and polyurethane. Polymers and plastics can be tested to measure product quality. The tests measure the weight required to split or break a plastic test material and sample elongation or stretch to that breaking load. The resulting data help to identify product quality and quality control checks for materials.
Plastic testing instruments, universal test machines provide a constant rate of extension because plastic tensile test behaviour is dependent on the speed of the test machine. The specimens loaded on the machines are set as per ASTM, DIN, ISO tensile test specimen dimensions. The Plastic tester machine should always rely on standard terms and conditions. As per ASTM D638, Plastic tensile test standards help to measure strain below 20 percent extension values. High strain can be measured by the machine, digital reader. Thin sheet sample testing is done as per the standard ASTM D882.
A high-quality testing machine is designed to measure the strength of a specific product, test method and product type. A good instrument can be the only solution required for your quality assurance and a worse choice can make you go in the loss too. So choose the instrument smartly.